control movement. Med Humanit [Internet]. 2019 Mar;45(1):67–74. Available from: lookup/doi/10.1136/medhum-2017-011419 97. Leavitt JW. Birthing and anesthesia: The debate over twilight sleep. Signs (Chic) [Internet]. 1980;6(1):147–64. Available from: 98. Noakes TD, Borresen J, Hew-Butler T, Lambert MI, Jordaan E. Semmelweis and the aetiology of puerperal sepsis 160 years on: An historical review. Epidemiol Infect [Internet]. 2008 Jan 7;136(1):1–9. Available from: 99. Hirsch E. Electronic fetal monitoring to prevent fetal brain injury. JAMA [Internet]. 2019 Aug 20;322(7):611. Available from: 100. Alfirevic Z, Gyte GML, Cuthbert A, Devane D. Continuous cardiotocography (CTG) as a form of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) for fetal assessment during labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev [Internet]. 2017 Feb 3;2019(5). Available from: 101. Small KA, Sidebotham M, Fenwick J, Gamble J. Intrapartum cardiotocograph monitoring and perinatal outcomes for women at risk: Literature review. Women and Birth [Internet]. 2020 Sep;33(5):411–8. Available from: 102. Sartwelle T, Johnston J. Continuous electronic fetal monitoring during labor: A critique and a reply to contemporary proponents. Surg J [Internet]. 2018 Jan 7;04(01):e23–8. Available from: 103. Nelson KB, Sartwelle TP, Rouse DJ. Electronic fetal monitoring, cerebral palsy, and caesarean section: Assumptions versus evidence. BMJ [Internet]. 2016 Dec 1;i6405. Available from: lookup/doi/10.1136/bmj.i6405 104. Al-Hafez L, Chauhan SP, Riegel M, Balogun OA, Hammad IA, Berghella V. Routine third-trimester ultrasound in low-risk pregnancies and perinatal death: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM [Internet]. 2020 Nov;2(4):100242. Available from: S258993332030210X 105. De Jonge A, Downe S, Page L, Devane D, Lindgren H, Klinkert J, et al. Value based maternal and newborn care requires alignment of adequate resources with high value activities. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth [Internet]. 2019 Dec 21;19(1):428. Available from: s12884-019-2512-3 106. Downe S, Finlayson K, Oladapo O, Bonet M, Gülmezoglu AM. What matters to women during childbirth: A systematic qualitative review. Norhayati MN, editor. PLoS One [Internet]. 2018 Apr 17;13(4):e0194906. Available from: 107. Begley K, Daly D, Panda S, Begley C. Shared decision-making in maternity care: Acknowledging and overcoming epistemic defeaters. J Eval Clin Pract [Internet]. 2019 Dec 23;25(6):1113–20. Available from: https:// 108. Curtin M, Savage E, Leahy-Warren P. Humanisation in pregnancy and childbirth: A concept analysis. J Clin Nurs [Internet]. 2020 May;29(9–10):1744–57. Available from: jocn.15152 109. Jolivet RR, Gausman J, Kapoor N, Langer A, Sharma J, Semrau KEA. Operationalizing respectful maternity care at the healthcare provider level: A systematic scoping review. Reprod Health [Internet]. 2021 Dec 1;18(1):194. 35 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION