60 2 CHAPTER 2 Authors’ contributions The data was collected by the first author. The data analysis was conducted by the first and second authors, who are women and non-practicing midwives. The first author has conducted research using interviews in the past and the second author has extensive previous experience with qualitative research methods as a medical anthropologist. The methodology and findings were discussed with, and approved by the entire research team, consisting of a medical historian, two sociologists and an obstetrician. Disclosure statement No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. Endnote The preliminary findings of this study have been presented at three occasions: the second AHRC workshop ‘Risks in childbirth in historical perspective’ on the 29th of March 2017, the Normal Labour and Birth Conference on the 2nd of October 2017 and at the book launch of the textbook ‘Medical History’ on the 28th of April 2018. ORCID Bahareh Goodarzi http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9758-1299 Carla van El http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2201-2320 Raymond de Vries http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3087-3040 Arie Franx http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8801-5546 Eddy Houwaart http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7317-6611 References Abbott, A. (1988). The system of professions. An essay on the division of expert labor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Abraham - van der Mark, E. (1996). Succesful home birth and midwifery. The Dutch model. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis Publishers. Aitink, M., Goodarzi, B., & Marijn, L. (2014). Beroepsprofiel verloskunidge [Professional profile of midwives]. Utrecht: The Royal Dutch Organisation of Midwives. Allotey, J. C. (2011). Writing midwives’ history: Problems and pitfalls. Midwifery, 27(2), 131–137. Amelink-Verburg, M. P., & Buitendijk, S. E. (2010). Pregnancy and labour in the dutch maternity care system: What is normal? The role division between midwives and obstetricians. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 55(3), 216–225. Amsterdamska, O. (1987). Schools of thought. Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-3759-8 Aulbers, G. J. M., & Bremer, G. J. (1995). De huisarts van toen; een historische benadering [The general practitioner of back then; an historical approach]. Rotterdam: Erasmus Publishing. Benoit, C., Wrede, S., Bourgeault, I. L., Sandall, J., de Vries, R., & van Teijlingen, E. R. (2005). Understanding the social organisation of maternity care systems: Midwifery as a touchstone. Sociology of Health and Illness, 27(6), 722–737. Bonsel, G. J., Birnie, E., Denktaş, S., Steegers, E. A. P., & Poeran, V. J. J. (2010). Signalementstudie zwangerschap en geboorte 2010 - Lijnen in de perinatale sterfte [Description study pregnancy and birth 2010 - Developments in perinatal death rate]. Rotterdam: Erasmus MC. Bos, K. (2016). Verloskundige bang voor medicalisering [Midwife afraid of medicalization]. NRC Handelsblad. Retrieved from https://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2016/06/23/verloskundige-bang-voormedicalisering-2880440-a1506147 Bucher, S. V., Chreim, S., Langley, A., & Reay, T. (2016). Contestation about collaboration: Discursive boundary work among professions. Organization Studies, 37(4), 497–522. 22 B. Goodarzi et al.